Public Service Design – Cross Government Design Meetup 22

Today I attended a Cross Government Design Meetup at the Design Museum in London. Here are some of the highlights I took away.

Introduction – Louise Downe

“Bad service design is one of the biggest costs to government”

In the future, “Services will shape government, not the other way round.” “Transformation will never be done” so focus on helping change to happen sustainably.

Dan Hill, Associate Director, Arup – Design and the public

The contrasting experience of two social housing projects shows the need for service design:

Wohnpark Alt-Erlaa, Viennna; image by Thomas Ledl – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Alterlaa Kunstwerk.jpg
By Thomas Ledl – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

 

The Robin Hood Estate; image by stevecadman – Flickrtik hartua, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link

 

Hill argues that the key difference between the success of the former, and the demolition of the latter is the ongoing maintenance, service and engagement.

Design needs a service blueprint. You aren’t just designing a one-off object – you’re building for life and for ongoing use. You need to design a service.
This is what was missing in the Robin Hood Estate.

There’s been a steep decline in the percentage of architects employed in the public sector. In 1970, 50% of architects were employed in the public sector; today only 0.7% of architects are.

Hill presents this as an opportunity. Digital has an opportunity to build design intelligence back into government. And we can build in this view of service design, making things better than before.

Prepare for the future by preparing to transition smoothly

It’s hard to know what the future will be like. So “The best focus for people is to make the transitions as effective and painless as possible as opposed to worrying about what the end point is.” – Michael Spence

The public sector needs to set out a vision for the future, otherwise the private sector will do it, leeching value out of a city and sending it to California.

Jean-Louis Missika, deputy mayor of Paris:
“We should announce, before 2020, that in Paris, no private owned AV will be allowed it will be only mobility as as service; not mobility as ownership”

Research in Zurich, Singapore and New York suggests that 80% of car use could be replaced by shared autonomous shuttle fleets.

DVLA – John Hewson

90% of DVLA interactions are now digital, up from about 9% in 2007. But that’s still 23 million paper applications per year, 5 million pieces of casework.

DVLA have made big changes to the user experience, but they haven’t yet made improvements to their internal systems.
Redesigning internal systems is another challenge, requiring slightly different expertise to building user-facing websites. These users often value efficiency over user-friendliness. One key piece of software is from 1990 and doesn’t even support a mouse, so this is a quite a challenge.

But the core discipline of prototyping, using best practices from the Service Manual, and testing iteratively will always work.

Panel discussion

https://twitter.com/Martin_Jordan/status/909797152427270144

The discussion reinforced the importance of applying service design to business models and procurement process – not just external user journeys. Take a service design approach to problem solving right through organisations.

Similarly, design for failure. Don’t just design for the perfect digital frontend – plan the whole service, and for all aspects of that service.

Design for the gaps between different nodes in someone’s experiences – e.g. a journey through healthcare. Each node can have its own effective risk register, but things can get lost in the cracks because there’s not always a holistic view.

How might we broaden political discourse and understanding in people age 25-35 in the UK? – Design project from the Design Kit course

This is a writeup of the design project I carried out with Tamsyn Hyatt as part of Ideo and +Acumen’s Design Kit: The Course for Human-Centered Design. Check out the prototype we produced.

Inspiration

Interviews

  • We spoke to people with a range of political views, and carried out participant observation of their news-consumption activity.
  • We learnt from experts: Framing and messaging from a third sector expert; Rules of social media and political discourse from a digital communications director.
  • Key quotes

    “I don’t need stirring up. I want information and to make rational decisions. It doesn’t need to be heated.”

    “It sometimes worries me that I only read news from a source that shares my views. Yet clearly there’s a whole other perspective, because the majority of people voted for Brexit. I don’t understand that, and I never will if I only ever consume news written by people like me. It would be helpful to see other perspectives, even if I don’t agree with them.”

    “If I can understand what their argument is, I’m better placed to counter it. But that would need to be from a reliable source, even if I don’t agree with it.”

    “Reading contrasting opinion pieces is helpful in forming ideas, and in developing new ways of thinking.”

Ideation

Key themes

  • Desire for reasoned argument from both sides
  • Time and efficiency
  • Payment and paywalls
Insight Design Question
People are willing to consider alternative viewpoints but have limited time to do so. They’re struggling with business as usual, let alone anything new. How might we deliver diverse views that are quick to consume, but not sensational or click bait?
Users are concerned that they don’t know what a credible mainstream ‘opposing’ source looks like. How might we find the best content to represent diverse views?
People may not accept views wildly different to their own as untenable, and so not engage with them. How might we find content which will be acceptable/viable to people of different viewpoints?
People generally have a notion of reliability that transcends the political spectrum. i.e. they concede that publications that they may not agree with ideologically are capable of reporting something useful, despite ideological differences. How might we stretch and push people enough to challenge them but not repel them?
Most people didn’t pay for news. How might we make a product that is either zero direct cost to the consumer, or which is seen as sufficiently valuable to warrant purchase?

Ideas from Brainstorming

  1. A twitter account – or accounts – sharing ideologically diverse content. Users can subscribe to high-quality content outside of their ideological viewpoint.
  2. A news site where diverse content is submitted by users, grouped by theme and ranked for quality. This means that the most high-quality articles to represent a given ideological position on a given topic bubble to the top.

Storyboard overview

The person
Name: Brian Simmonds
Age: 29
Profession: Administrator for a small healthcare company

Step What is happening? What is the most important question to answer? How might we answer it?
Reads the day’s news following his normal routine Brian rushes to work. He squeezes on to the train and checks his regular news sites on his phone. [already explored in Inspiration stage] [already explored in Inspiration stage]
Becomes aware of the tool He receives a message from his friend suggesting that he check out a new news tool What channel of communication is likely to encourage someone to look at a new news source? Who would the message need to come from? Test with real content in people’s facebook feeds, versus whatsapp recommendations and personalised emails
Looks at the day’s news on the new tool Brian reviews the content on the news site and is prompted to read content from different ideological viewpoints to his own. They are high quality, so he finds them challenging but interesting and informative. Will people actually choose to read an article that they disagrees with ideologically? Build a basic wireframe prototype and carry out participant observation user testing
Rates an article that he read Brian gives a thumbs up or a thumbs down to each article he read, helping other users see which ones are best, from each ideological point of view. Do perceptions of quality actually cross ideological boundaries as our research suggested they could? Will people positively rate an article that they ideologically disagree with? Build a basic wireframe prototype and carry out participant observation user testing
Shares an article that he enjoyed in his own reading Brian notices that one good article he has read today isn’t listed. So he submits this article to the site Will he take the time to share content if? (Particularly as there isn’t currently any social reward to him for doing so) Trial submit form on test service. This could be achieved using a Google Doc. This would then be manually added to the site, if the article passed a basic quality check
Shares the tool with others Brian finds the tool useful so he shares it with others in his network. Will the service be able to spread to others without paid advertising? Test on a functional prototype, and invite users to share. Build in basic social sharing features to prompt and facilitate this. E.g. facebook and twitter.

Prototyping

What did you prototype? What question(s) were you trying to answer?

We ​tested a clickable digital prototype​ made using the Balsamiq mockup tool.

The most important question to research was:

  • “Will people actually choose to read an article of an ideological perspective that they disagree with?”

The most important secondary questions were:

  • Will people understand our way of representing ideologically diverse content? What interface design approaches might be best?
  • Do perceptions of quality actually cross ideological boundaries as our research suggested they could? In practical terms, will people positively rate an article that they ideologically disagree with?

What did you learn from testing your prototype?

  • People looked at ideologically diverse content But this may have been ‘under duress’ as they knew they were being observed. To have confidence in this result, we would need to test in a more anonymous fashion, and in a more real-life context.
  • Users were unclear what the ‘thumbs up’ and ‘thumbs down’ meant. Does a thumbs up signify endorsement, or liking, or was it a dispassionate quality measure saying that an article makes valid points and makes you think, even you don’t actually agree with it?
  • Some users found the left-right split a bit binary. Could this be improved, to better show nuances of different positions? Is it actually useful to divide content up into different ideological sections of the page?

What might you consider for future iterations?

  • Change the ‘thumbs up’ and ‘thumbs down’ to something more emotionally neutral. It will need to signify that this piece is well-constructed and reasoned, but must not imply liking.
  • Explore whether community submissions are the best model for discovering new content.
  • Explore pulling in content automatically from high-quality sources with different editorial perspectives.
  • Explore visual and layout approaches to presenting diverse content relating to a given topic that will scale well to mobile devices. (The approach tested was desktop only, as it required more horizontal space than is available in a smartphone or tablet)
  • Explore how to categorize content beyond a left-right binary. Consider in relation to the above point about visual design and layout.
  • Allow people to add tweets, and embed these directly on the page.